Course Outline

    CHAPTER 1: Introduction to Chemistry

  • Chemistry: The Central Science (chemistry)
  • The Stories of Two Chemicals
  • The Ozone Layer (chemical, ozone, ozone hole)
  • The Earth's Atmosphere (troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere)
  • Ozone Formation (oxygen gas, radiation)
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (chlorofluorocarbons, nontoxic, stable)
  • Chemistry and Matter
  • Matter and its Characteristics (matter, mass)
  • Mass and Weight (weight, atoms)
  • Branches in the Field of Chemistry
  • Some Branches of Chemistry (organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, biochemistry, experimental chemistry, industrial chemistry, polymer chemistry, theoretical chemistry, thermochemistry)
  • Scientific Methods (collaboration)
  • A Scientific Approach (scientific method)
  • Observation (observations, qualitative data, quantitative data, microscopic, macroscopic, submicroscopic)
  • Hypothesis (hypothesis)
  • Experiments (experiment, variable, independent variable, dependent variable, control)
  • Data Analysis and Conclusion (conclusion, model)
  • Communication of Results
  • Crushed Ice at Home Experiment
  • Theory (theory)
  • Scientific Law (scientific law)
  • Scientific Research
  • Types of Scientific Investigations (pure research, applied research)
  • Students in the Laboratory
  • Laboratory Safety
  • Benefits of Chemistry (technology)
    • CHAPTER 2: Analyzing Data

    • Units and Measurement (metric system, SI system)
    • SI Units
    • Quantity - Base Unit Chart. (base unit, second, meter, kilogram, Kelvin, mole, ampere, candela)
    • Metric Prefix Chart
    • Using Prefixes With SI Units to Solve Metric Bracket Problems
    • Rules for Solving Metric Bracket Problems
    • Metric Bracket Problems
    • Time (second)
    • Length (meter, vacuum)
    • Mass (kilogram, International Prototype Kilogram)
    • Derived Units (derived unit)
    • Volume (volume, liter)
    • Density (density)
    • Density Problems
    • Using Density and Volume to Solve Mass Problems
    • Using Density and Mass to Solve Volume Problems
    • Temperature (temperature, heat, thermometer, Kelvin)
    • Temperature Conversion Problems
    • Scientific Notation and Dimensional Analysis
    • Scientific Notation (scientific notation, exponential form, Arrows rule)
    • Expressing Quantities in Scientific Notation Problems
    • Adding and Subtracting Using Scientific Notation
    • Adding and Subtracting Quantities Written in Scientific Notation Problems
    • Multiplying and Dividing Quantities Written in Scientific Notation Problems
    • Dimensional Analysis (dimensional analysis, conversion factors, Risbrudt brackets)
    • Rules For Converting From One Unit to Another
    • Conversion Factor Chart
    • Conversion Factor Problems: Distance, Time, Mass-Weight, Volume
    • (angstrom)
    • Multiple Conversion Factor Problems: Density, Velocity, Rates, Volume
    • Uncertainty in Data
    • Accuracy and Precision (accuracy, precision, sucrose)
    • Percent Error (experimental values, accepted value, theoretical value, error, percent error)
    • Percent Error Problems
    • Significant Figures (significant figures, significant digits)
    • Rules For Helping Recognize Significant Figures
    • Significant Figure Problems
    • Rounding Off Numbers
    • Rules For Rounding Off Numbers
    • Rounding Off Numbers Problems
    • Rounding Off Rules for Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division
    • Rounding Off Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division Problems
    • Representing Data (graph)
    • Circle Graphs (circle graph, pie chart)
    • Bar Graphs (bar graph, y-axis, ordinate, x-axis, abscissa)
    • Line Graphs (best fit line)
    • Calculating the Slope of a Line From Data Points (slope)
    • Calculating the Slope of a Line From Data Points Problems
    • Interpreting Graphs (continuous, interpolation, extrapolation)
    • Making and Using Graphs problem
    • Drawing and Describing Graphs
      • CHAPTER 3: Matter ‑ Properties and Changes

      • Properties of Matter
      • Substances (matter, substance)
      • Physical Properties of Matter (physical property, luster, malleability, ductility, conductivity, extensive property, intensive property, density, solubility, pores, pyrite)
      • Physical Properties of Common Substances Chart
      • Chemical Properties of Matter (thermal, chemical property, stability, radioactivity, flammability)
      • Observing Properties of Matter
      • States of Matter (states of matter, plasma)
      • Solids (solid, incompressible)
      • Liquids (liquid, fluid)
      • Gases (gas, vapor)
      • States of Matter Chart
      • Changes in Matter
      • Physical Changes (physical changes, changes of state, melting, freezing, evaporation, condensation, sublimation, deposition)
      • Chemical Changes (chemical change, reactants, products, chemical equation)
      • Conservation of Mass (law of conservation of mass)
      • Conservation of Mass Problems
      • Mixtures of Matter
      • Mixtures (mixture)
      • Types of Mixtures (heterogeneous mixture, homogeneous mixture, solution, solder, alloy)
      • Separating Mixtures (filtration, distillation, crystallization, chromatography)
      • Elements and Compounds
      • Elements (element, synthesized, symbols) See: www.ptable.com
      • A First Look at the Periodic Table (periods, groups, families)
      • Compounds (compound, electrolysis, chemical formula)
      • Law of Definite Proportions (law of definite proportions, percent by mass)
      • Law of Definite Proportion Problems
      • Sucrose Analysis from Sugar Beets
      • Sucrose Analysis from Sugar Cane
      • Percent Problems
      • Law of Multiple Proportions (law of multiple proportions)
      • Law of Multiple Proportions Problems
        • CHAPTER 4: The Structure of the Atom

        • Early Theories of Matter
        • The Philosophers
        • John Dalton (Dalton's atomic theory)
        • Defining the Atom (atom, scanning tunneling microscope)
        • Subatomic Particles and the Nuclear Atom
        • Discovering the Electron (ray, cathode, anode, cathode ray, electrons)
        • The Nuclear Atom (alpha particles, gold foil experiment, nucleus)
        • Completing the Atom ‑ The Discovery of Protons and Neutrons (protons, neutron, subatomic)
        • How Atoms Differ
        • Atomic Number (atomic number)
        • Isotopes and Mass Number (isotopes, protium, deuterium, mass number, isotope notation, symbolic notation)
        • Atomic Number and Mass Number Problems
        • Composition of Various Isotopes
        • Mass of Individual Atoms (atomic mass units [amu])
        • Calculating Average Atomic Mass Problems
        • Unstable Nuclei and Radioactive Decay
        • Radioactivity (nuclear reactions, radioactivity, radiation, spontaneous, radioactive decay)
        • Type of Radiation
        • Alpha Radiation (alpha radiation, nuclear equation)
        • Beta Radiation (beta radiation, beta particles)
        • Gamma Radiation (gamma radiation, gamma rays)
        • Nuclear Equation Problems
        • Summary
        • Characteristics of Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Radiation Chart
        • Benefits of Chemistry (technology)
        • Students in the Laboratory
        • Laboratory Safety
          • CHAPTER 5: Electrons in Atoms

          • Light and Quantized Energy
          • The Nuclear Atom and Unanswered Questions
          • Wave Nature of Light (electromagnetic radiation, electromagnetic spectrum, EM spectrum, crests, troughs, frequency, hertz, cycle, period, amplitude, wavelength)
          • Particle Nature of Light (quanta, quantum, joule, Planck's constant)
          • Information Used To Calculate Planck's Hypothesis Problems
          • Planck's Hypothesis Problems
          • (newton)
          • Wavelength of High Speed Particle problem
          • Momentum and Inertia (inertia, momentum)
          • Momentum Problems
          • Calculating Wavelength from Momentum problem
          • Direct Variation
          • Inverse Variation
          • If Other Factors Are Held Constant, . . . Increase or Decrease Problems
          • (Newtonian mechanics, Quantum mechanics, photoelectric effect, photoelectrons, photons)
          • Atomic Emission Spectra (atomic emission spectrum)
          • Summary of Wave Model and Particle Model of Light
          • Quantum Theory and the Atom (quantized)
          • The Bohr Atomic Model (ground state, quantum numbers, planetary model)
          • Louis deBroglie (deBroglie equation)
          • Werner Heisenberg (Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle)
          • Irwin Schrodinger (atomic orbital, electron cloud, quantum numbers, quantum mechanical model of the atom)
          • The Quantum Mechanical Model
          • The 1st Quantum Number, "n" (principal quantum number)
          • Calculating Maximum Number of Electrons in Energy Levels problem
          • Energy Level, Quantum Number, Radius by Experiment, Relative Energy Chart
          • The 2nd Quantum Number, "l" (angular momentum quantum number)
          • The 3rd Quantum Number, "m" (magnetic quantum number, atomic orbital)
          • The 4th Quantum Number, "s" (spin quantum number)
          • Electron Configurations (electron configuration, diagonal rule, aufbau principle, aufbau diagram)
          • Diagonal Rule Chart
          • Electron Configuration Problems (Hund's Rule)
          • Using the Periodic Table to Determine Electron Configuration
          • Quantum Number Values
          • Pauli Exclusion Principle (degenerate)
          • Noble Gas Configuration (noble gas configuration)
          • Noble Gas Configuration problem
          • Plotting Points in Space (abscissa, ordinate)
          • Orbital Diagrams
          • Orbital Shapes Charts
          • Valence Electrons (valence electrons)
          • Electron Dot Diagrams (electron dot diagram)
          • Electron Dot Diagram Problems
            • CHAPTER 6: The Periodic Table and Periodic Law

            • Development of the Modern Periodic Table (periodic table, periods, groups, families, periodic law)
            • History of the Periodic Table's Development (law of octaves)
            • The Modern Periodic Table (periods, group, family, representative elements, transition elements, metals, ductile, malleable, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, nonmetals, chalcogens, halogens, inert, noble gases, metalloids, coinage metals)
            • Classification of the Elements
            • What do These Elements Have in Common?1Chart
            • Valence Electrons (valence electrons)
            • The s, p, d, and f‑Block Elements
            • The s‑Block Elements
            • The p‑Block Elements
            • The d‑Block Elements (transition metal)
            • The f‑Block Elements (inner transition metal)
            • Noble Gas Configuration and the Periodic Table Problems
            • List all the Symbols of Elements With These Valence Electron Configurations
            • Identify Each of the Following as a Representative Element or Transition Element
            • Periodic Trends
            • Atomic Radius (atomic radius)
            • Atomic Size Chart
            • Atomic Radius Problems
            • Ionic Radius (ionic radius)
            • Ionic Size Chart
            • Ionic Radius Problems
            • Calculating Intermolecular Distance Problems
            • Ionization Energy (first ionization energy)
            • First Ionization Energy (Eion) Chart
            • First Ionization Energy Problems
            • Factors That Affect Eion for Each Element (shielding effect)
            • The Octet Rule (octet rule)
            • Group, Valence Electrons, Ionic Charge Chart
            • Octet Rule Problems
            • Electronegativity (chemical bond, electronegativity)
            • Electronegativity Chart
            • Electronegativity Problems
              • CHAPTER 7: Ionic Compounds and Metals

              • Forming Chemical Bonds (compounds)
              • Chemical Bonds (chemical bond, ions, valence, cation, anion, ionic compound)
              • Determining Charges of Ions
              • How Do You Write a Correct Chemical Formula for an Ionic Compound? (ion, monatomic ion, polyatomic ion, radical, oxidation number, valence)
              • Writing Correct Chemical Formula Problems
              • How Radicals (Polyatomic Ions) Are Named
              • Naming Chemical Compounds (chemical nomenclature)
              • Binary Compounds (binary compounds)
              • Binary Acids (binary acids)
              • Ternary Compounds (ternary compounds)
              • Ternary Acids (ternary acids)
              • Diatomic Molecules (diatomic)
              • Chemical Formula Problems
              • Naming Chemical Compounds Problems
              • Using of Roman Numerals in Compounds
              • Roman Numeral Problems
              • Use of Greek Prefixes in Compounds
              • Greek Prefixes Problems
              • Hydrates in Compounds (hydrate, water of hydration, anhydrous)
              • The Formation and Nature of Ionic Bonds (ionic bond)
              • Properties of Ionic Compounds and Lattice Energy (crystal lattice, electrolytes, lattice energy)
              • Names and Formulas for Ionic Compounds (formula unit, monatomic ions, oxyanions)
              • Metallic Bonds and Properties of Metals (electron sea model, delocalized electrons, free electrons, metallic bond, malleable, ductile, alloy, substitutional alloy, sterling silver, brass, pewter, stainless steel, interstitial alloy, interstices, carbon steel)
                • CHAPTER 8: Covalent Bonding

                • The Covalent Bond (covalent bond, molecule, bonding pairs, single covalent bond, lone pairs, unshared pairs, Lewis structures)
                • Lewis Structure Problems
                • (valence)
                • Bond Types and Covalent Multiple Bonds (sigma bonds, double covalent bond, triple covalent bond, pi bond)
                • Lewis Structure Problems 2
                • Bond Length and Strength (bond length, bond distance, bond dissociation energy, endothermic, exothermic)
                • Naming Molecules Review (oxyacids, oxyanions, binary acids)
                • Formulas and Names of Some Covalent Compounds Chart
                • Molecular Structures (structural formula)
                • Lewis Structures of Polyatomic Ions Problems
                • Resonance Structures (resonance)
                • Lewis Resonance Structures
                • Exceptions to the Octet Rule (coordinate covalent bond)
                • Molecular Shapes
                • VSEPR Model (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion, hybridization, hybrid orbital)
                • A Molecule with 2 Atoms (linear)
                • A Molecule with 3 Atoms (bent)
                • A Molecule with 4 Atoms (trigonal planar)
                • A Molecule with 5 Atoms (tetragonal, tetrahedral)
                • A Molecule with 6 Atoms (trigonal bipyramidal)
                • A Molecule with 7 Atoms (octahedral)
                • Electronegativity and Polarity
                • Electronegativity Difference and Bond Character (electronegativity, polar, polar bond, nonpolar covalent, polar covalent, ionic bond, ionic character)
                • Percent Ionic Character of Single Covalent Bond Chart
                • Electronegativity Problems
                • (dipole)
                • Electronegativity and Polarity Problems
                • Polar and Nonpolar Problems
                • Properties of Covalent Compounds (intermolecular forces, van der Waals forces, dispersion forces, dipole-dipole force, hydrogen bond)
                • Covalent Network Solids (covalent network solids)
                  • CHAPTER 9: Chemical Reactions

                  • Reactions and Equations (synthetic, chemical reaction, chemical change, equation, reactants, products, aqueous, crystalline, word equations, skeleton equations)
                  • Balancing Chemical Equations (balanced chemical equation, coefficients)
                  • Balancing Equations Problems
                  • Classifying Chemical Reactions
                  • Synthesis Reactions (synthesis reaction)
                  • Combustion Reactions (combustion reaction, hydrocarbon, alkanes)
                  • Decomposition Reactions (decomposition reaction)
                  • Single Replacement Reactions (single-replacement reaction)
                  • Double Replacement Reactions (double-replacement reaction)
                  • Periodic Trends in Reactivity (activity series)
                  • Predicting Single Replacement Problems
                  • Reactions in Aqueous Solutions (substance, solution, solute, solvent, aqueous solution, dissociation reaction)
                  • Dissociation Reaction Problems
                  • Reactions That Form Precipitates (precipitate, complete ionic equation, net ionic equation, spectator ions)
                  • Reactions That Form Precipitate Problems
                  • Reactions That Form Water
                  • Reactions That Form Water Problems
                  • Reactions That Form Gases
                  • Reactions That Form Gases Problems
                  • The Three Chemicals in Chemistry That Break Down!
                  • H2SO3, H2CO3, NH4OH
                    • CHAPTER 10: The Mole

                    • Formula Mass and Measuring Matter (atomic mass unit, molecular mass, formula mass, atomic weight, atomic mass, gram-atomic weight, gram molecular weight)
                    • Formula Mass Problems
                    • Mass and the Mole
                    • Using Molar Mass
                    • (mole, molar mass)
                    • Avogadro's Number (Avogadro's number, mole, representative particle, specie)
                    • Mass to Moles, Moles to Mass, Avogadro's Number Problems
                    • Atoms to Moles, Moles to Atoms, Avogadro's Number Problems
                    • Conversion From Mass to Moles to Particles Problems
                    • Percent Composition (percent composition)
                    • Percent Composition Problems
                    • Percent Composition of Hydrates
                    • Percent Composition of Hydrates Problems
                    • Empirical Formulas (empirical formula)
                    • Empirical Formula Problems
                    • Molecular Formulas (molecular formula, hydrate, anhydrous)
                    • Molecular Formula/Hydrate Problems
                    • (azobenzene)
                    • Formulas of Hydrates
                      • CHAPTER 11: Stoichiometry

                      • What is Stoichiometry? (stoichiometry)
                      • Mole Ratios (mole ratio)
                      • Mole Ratio Problems
                      • Stoichiometric Calculations
                      • Mole to Mole Conversion Problems
                      • Moles to Mass Conversion Problems
                      • Mass to Moles Conversion Problems
                      • Mass to Mass Conversion Problems
                      • Impure Substances (inert)
                      • Impure Substance Problems
                      • Limiting Reactants (limiting reactant, excess reactant)
                      • Limiting Reactant Problems
                      • Percent Yield (percent yield, theoretical yield, theoretical value, actual yield, experimental value)
                      • Percent Error (percent error)
                      • Percent Error Problems
                        • CHAPTER 12: States of Matter

                        • Gases (kinetic-molecular theory, kinetic energy)
                        • Gas Particle Size
                        • Gas Particle Motion (elastic collision)
                        • Gas Particle Energy (velocity, temperature)
                        • Kinetic Energy Problems
                        • (erg)
                        • Explaining the Behavior of Gases
                        • Low Density Gases (density)
                        • Compression and Expansion
                        • Diffusion (diffusion)
                        • Graham's Law of Effusion (effusion, Graham's Law)
                        • Graham's Law Problems
                        • Gas Pressure (pressure)
                        • Measuring Air Pressure (atmospheric pressure, air pressure, barometer)
                        • Units of Pressure (pascal)
                        • Pressure Conversion Problems
                        • (manometer)
                        • Manometer Problems
                        • Mean Free Path (mean free path)
                        • Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
                        • Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure Problems
                        • Forces of Attractions (intermolecular forces)
                        • Intermolecular Forces
                        • Dispersion Forces (dispersion forces)
                        • Dipole-Dipole Forces (dipole-dipole forces)
                        • Hydrogen Bonds (hydrogen bond)
                        • Liquids and Solids
                        • Liquids
                        • Density and Compression
                        • Fluidity (fluidity, fluids)
                        • Viscosity (viscosity)
                        • Viscosity and Temperature
                        • Surface Tension (surface tension, surfactants)
                        • Capillary Action (capillary action, meniscus, cohesion, adhesion)
                        • Solids
                        • Density of Solids
                        • Crystalline Solids (crystalline solid, crystals, crystal lattice)
                        • Crystal Lattice Shapes (cubic, tetragonal, orthorhombic, triclinic, hexagonal, rhombohedral, monoclinic, unit cell)
                        • Types of Crystalline Solids and Their Characteristics (atomic solids, molecular solids, covalent network solids, ionic solids, metallic solids)
                        • Crystalline Solid Problems
                        • Amorphous Solids (amorphous)
                        • Phase Changes (phases)
                        • Phase Changes That Require Energy (melting point, vaporization, evaporation, boiling point)
                        • Sublimation (sublimation)
                        • Phase Changes That Release Energy
                        • Condensation (condensation, fog)
                        • Deposition (frost, deposition)
                        • Freezing
                        • Phase Diagrams (phase diagram, triple point)
                          • CHAPTER 13: Gases

                          • The Gas Laws (kinetic theory, ideal gas)
                          • The Nature of Gases (STP)
                          • Boyle's Law (Boyle's Law)
                          • Boyle's Law Problems
                          • Charles's Law (Charles's Law)
                          • Charles's Law Problems
                          • Gay-Lussac's Law (Gay-Lussac's Law)
                          • Gay-Lussac's Law Problems
                          • The Combined Gas Law and Avogadro's Principle
                          • The Combined Gas Law (Combined Gas Law)
                          • Combined Gas Law Problems
                          • Avogadro's Principle (Avogadro's Principle, molar volume)
                          • Stoichiometry: Mass to Volume, Volume to Mass Problems
                          • The Ideal Gas Law (ideal gas constant)
                          • Ideal Gas Equation Problems
                          • Calculating Density From the Ideal Gas Equation Problems
                          • Dalton's Law (Dalton's Law, partial pressure)
                          • Solving Dalton's Law Problems
                          • Linear Interpolation
                          • Linear Interpolation Problems
                          • Dalton's Law Partial Pressure Problems
                          • Dalton's Law Problems
                          • Nonstandard Conditions
                          • Nonstandard Condition Problems
                          • Stoichiometry: Volume to Volume
                          • Stoichiometry: Volume to Volume Problems
                            • CHAPTER 14: Mixtures and Solutions

                            • Densities ‑ Molecular Masses of Two Gases
                            • Densities ‑ Molecular Masses of Two Gases Problems
                            • Risbrudt's Density Law
                            • Risbrudt's Density Law Equation Problems
                            • Calculating Gas Density
                            • Gas Density Problems
                            • What Are Solutions? (solutions, solute, solvent, soluble, insoluble, miscible, immiscible, solvation, hydration, solubility, saturated solution, unsaturated solution, supersaturated solution)
                            • Solubility ‑ Temperature Graph Problems
                            • Pressure and Solubility (Henry's Law)
                            • Henry's Law Problems
                            • Classifications of Solutions (concentrated solution, dilute solution, standard solution)
                            • Solution Concentration
                            • Molarity (molarity)
                            • Molarity Problems
                            • Normality (normality, equivalent, gram-equivalent weight)
                            • Gram‑Equivalent Weight problem
                            • Normality Problems
                            • Molality (molality)
                            • Molality Problems
                            • Mass Percent (mass percent, percent by mass, percent concentration)
                            • Mass Percent Problems
                            • Mole Fraction (mole fraction)
                            • Mole Fraction Problems
                            • Mole Percent (mole percent)
                            • Mole Percent problem
                            • Volume Percent (volume percent, percent by volume)
                            • Volume Percent Problems
                            • Diluting Molar Solutions (stock solution)
                            • Diluting Molar Solutions Problems
                            • Colligative Properties of Solutions (colligative properties)
                            • Raoult's Law (vapor pressure, vapor pressure lowering, Raoult's Law)
                            • Raoult's Law Problems
                            • Determination of Molecular Weights from Raoult's Law Problems
                            • Boiling Point Elevation (boiling point, condensation point, boiling point elevation)
                            • Freezing Point Depression (freezing point, melting point, freezing point depression)
                            • Boiling Point Elevation ‑ Freezing Point Depression Problems
                            • Boiling Point ‑ Freezing Point Calculations
                            • Boiling Point ‑ Freezing Point Calculations Problems
                            • Molecular Mass Calculations
                            • Molecular Mass Calculations Problems
                            • Osmotic Pressure (osmosis, osmotic pressure)
                            • Osmotic Pressure Problems
                            • Making Solutions
                            • Making Solutions Problems
                            • Heterogeneous Mixtures (suspension, colloid, Brownian movement, Tyndall Effect)
                              • CHAPTER 15: Energy and Chemical Change

                              • Energy (energy, potential energy, kinetic energy, Law of Conservation of Energy, chemical potential energy, heat, calorie, joule, Calories)
                              • Converting Energy Units Problems
                              • Specific Heat (specific heat capacity, calorimeter)
                              • Specific Heat Capacities of Common Substances at 298K Chart
                              • Calculating Heat Problems
                              • Thermochemistry (thermochemistry, molar heat of fusion, heat of melting, molar heat of vaporization, heat of condensation)
                              • Molar Heats of Fusion and Vaporization for Some Substances Chart
                              • Thermochemistry Problems
                              • Calorimetry (calorimetry)
                              • Calorimetry Problems
                              • Specific Heat Capacity
                              • Specific Heat Capacity Problems
                              • Thermodynamics (thermodynamics, heat of reaction, enthalpy, heat of formation)
                              • Heat of Reaction
                              • Heat of Reaction Problems
                              • Mass to Heat Calculations
                              • Mass to Heat Calculations Problems
                              • Reaction Spontaneity (entropy)
                              • The Entropy of a System Predicted
                              • Gibbs Free Energy (free energy, isothermic, isobaric, spontaneous, exothermic reactions, nonspontaneous, endothermic reactions)
                              • Thermodynamic Problems
                              • Gibbs Free Energy Problems
                                • CHAPTER 16: Reaction Rates

                                • A Model for Reaction Rates (reaction rate)
                                • Average Reaction Rates
                                • Average Reaction Rates Problems
                                • The Collision Theory (collision theory, activated complex, transition state)
                                • Activation Energy
                                • Factors Affecting Reaction Rate (rate of reaction, Law of Mass Action)
                                • What Affect Does Concentration Have on Reaction Rate? (concentration)
                                • Specific Rate Constant (specific rate constant, reaction mechanism)
                                • Reaction Rate Explained
                                • Reaction Rate Problems
                                • What Affect Does Nature of Reactants Have on Reaction Rate? (activated complex, transition state)
                                • Reaction Mechanisms (complex reaction, rate determining step)
                                • What Affect Does Temperature Have on Reaction Rate?
                                • What Affect Does Pressure Have on Reaction Rate?
                                • What Affect Does Surface Area Have on Reaction Rate?
                                • What Affect Does Catalysis Have on Reaction Rate? (catalyst, homogeneous catalyst, heterogeneous catalyst, inhibitors)
                                  • CHAPTER 17: Chemical Equilibrium

                                  • Equilibrium: A State of Dynamic Balance (reversible reaction, chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, law of chemical equilibrium)
                                  • Equilibrium Constant Expressions for Homogeneous Equilibria
                                  • Equilibrium Constant Expressions for Heterogeneous Equilibria (heterogeneous equilibrium)
                                  • Calculating Equilibrium Constants
                                  • Equilibrium Constant Problems
                                  • Logarithms (logarithm, characteristic, mantissa)
                                  • Rule #1 Log AB = Log A + Log B
                                  • Rule #2 Log A/B = Log A ‑ Log B
                                  • Rule #3 Log Ab = b(Log A)
                                  • Rule #4 (natural logarithms)
                                  • Rule #5 (antilogarithm)
                                  • Logarithm and Antilogarithm Problems
                                  • Chemical Equilibrium Problems
                                  • Arrhenius Equation (Arrhenius equation)
                                  • Arrhenius Equation Problems
                                  • LeChâtelier's Principle (LeChâtelier's principle)
                                  • LeChâtelier's Principle Problems
                                  • Chemical Equilibrium Using the Quadratic Formula
                                  • Chemical Equilibrium 2 Problems
                                  • Optimum Conditions (optimum conditions)
                                  • Formation of a Gas
                                  • Formation of a Precipitate (precipitate)
                                  • Formation of a Slightly Ionized Substance
                                  • General Equation for Solubility Equilibria
                                  • The Solubility Product Constant (solubility product constant)
                                  • Solubility Product Constants at 298K Chart
                                  • Types of Solubility Equilibria Calculations
                                  • Molar Solubility Problems
                                  • Calculating the Solubility Product Constant, Ksp Problems
                                  • Common Ion Effect
                                  • Common Ion Effect Problems
                                  • Predicting Precipitates (ion product, Qsp, alkali metals, halides, dilution factor)
                                  • Predicting Precipitate Problems
                                    • CHAPTER 18: Acids and Bases

                                    • Introduction to Acids and Bases (formic acid, carbonic acid, citric acid, ascorbic acid, vitamin C)
                                    • The pH Scale (hydronium ion)
                                    • Dissociation Reaction Problems
                                    • pH Problems
                                    • What Are Electrolytes? (electrolytes)
                                    • Properties of Acids (litmus paper)
                                    • Properties of Bases (hydroxyl, alcohols, ethyl alcohol)
                                    • Acid and Base Theories (Arrhenius theory, Brønsted-Lowry theory, Lewis theory)
                                    • Conjugate Acids and Conjugate Bases (conjugate, conjugate acid, conjugate base, amphoteric)
                                    • Conjugate Acid and Conjugate Base questions
                                    • Anhydrides (anhydride, acid anhydride, basic anhydride)
                                    • Predicting Anhydrides
                                    • Predicting Anhydride Problems
                                    • Salts (salt, cation, anion)
                                    • Predicting Salt Formations
                                    • Strengths of Acids and Bases (strong acid, strong base, weak acid, weak base)
                                    • The Ionization Constant (ionization constant)
                                    • Solving Ionization Constant Problems
                                    • Ionization Constant Problems
                                    • Percent of Ionization (percent of ionization, degree of ionization)
                                    • Percent of Ionization Problems
                                    • Polyprotic Ionization (monoprotic acid, diprotic acid, polyprotic acid)
                                    • Polyprotic Reaction Mechanism
                                    • Polyprotic Ionization Problems
                                    • Titration (acid-base neutralization, standard solution, buret, indicator, equivalence point, end point)
                                    • The Laboratory Titration Procedure
                                    • Titration Problems
                                      • CHAPTERS 19: Redox Reactions

                                      • Oxidation and Reduction (bioluminescence)
                                      • Determining Oxidation Numbers (oxidation number)
                                      • Rules for Determining Oxidation Numbers
                                      • Determining Oxidation Number Problems
                                      • Oxidation and Reduction (electronegativity, oxidation-reduction reaction, redox reaction)
                                      • Electron Transfer and Redox Reactions (redox reaction, nonredox reaction)
                                      • Write the Balanced Chemical Equation, Complete Ionic Equation, Net Ionic Equation
                                      • (oxidation, reduction, mnemonic, half-reaction)
                                      • Identifying Oxidation-Reduction Problems.
                                      • Writing Out Reduction and Oxidation Reaction Problems.
                                      • Identifying Oxidizing Agents and Reducing Agents (reducing agent, oxidizing agent)
                                      • Identifying Oxidizing Agents and Reducing Agents Problems.
                                      • Can an Element Ever be Oxidized and Reduced in the Same Reaction?
                                      • Balancing Redox Equations
                                      • Balancing Redox Equations by Oxidation Number Change (oxidation number change method, method)
                                      • Balancing Redox Equations by Oxidation Number Change Method Problems.
                                      • Balancing Redox Equations by Using Half-Reactions (specie)
                                      • Balancing Redox Equations by Using Half-Reactions Problems.
                                      • Balancing Redox Equations by Using Half-Reactions in Acid Solutions.
                                      • Balancing Redox Equations by Using Half-Reactions in Acid Solutions Problems.
                                        • CHAPTER 20: Electrochemistry

                                        • Voltaic Cells (electrochemistry, electric current, electrochemical cell, electrolytic cell, voltaic cell, half-cells, salt bridge, agar gel, anode, cathode)
                                        • Calculating Cell Potential (reduction potential, standard hydrogen electrode, cell potential)
                                        • E0cell = E0reduction ‑ E0oxidation
                                        • Standard Reduction Potentials at 25°C, 1 atm, and 1 M Hydrogen Ion Concentration
                                        • Rules For Determining Cell Potentials
                                        • Calculating Cell Potential Problems
                                        • Voltaic Cell question (cell notation)
                                        • Standard Cell Potential, Cell Reaction, Cell Notation Problems.
                                        • * Words in italics are terms, sentences that are underlined are problems.